After 10 years of administrative boundary adjustment, Hanoi’s suburban districts have witnessed positive changes in socio-economy and infrastructure. However, challenges still remain, requiring local authorities to adopt measures to ensure the city’s sustainable development. Many localities have had better infrastructure for agricultural activities for a decade of being merged with Hanoi. The city has also paid attention to economic restructuring and industrial development. Changes can be clearly seen after the expansion of administrative boundaries. However, the city has also faced a new challenge: pollution.